TX NATURAL RESOURCES CODE

TITLE 3. OIL AND GAS

SUBTITLE A. ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 91. PROVISIONS GENERALLY APPLICABLE

SUBCHAPTER B. DUTIES RELATING TO OIL AND GAS WELLS



§ 91.011. CASING.
     Before drilling into the oil or gas bearing rock, the owner or operator of a well being drilled for oil or gas shall encase the well with good and sufficient wrought iron or steel casing or with any other material that meets standards adopted by the commission, particularly where wells could be subjected to corrosive elements or high pressures and temperatures, in a manner that will exclude surface or fresh water from the lower part of the well from penetrating the oil or gas bearing rock, and if the well is drilled through the first into the lower oil or gas bearing rock, the well shall be cased in a manner that will exclude fresh water above the last oil or gas bearing rock penetrated.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2560, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 704, § 1, eff. Aug. 26, 1985.

§ 91.012. WATER IN WELLS.
     (a) In boring any well for oil or gas, if a person pierces any cap rock or other geological formation in a manner that will cause a flow of salt water or fresh water injurious to an already bored oil well or any oil or gas deposits and that will probably result in the injury of the oil or gas field or already bored oil or gas well, the person shall abandon immediately all work on the well if the flow of water cannot be cased off and shall plug and fill the well in a manner and with materials that will stop the flow of the water.
     (b) No well owner or person boring a well described under Subsection (a) of this section may remove the casing from the drilled well until the flow of water is stopped either by casing off or plugging the well.
     (c) The provisions of this section apply only if the cap rock or other formation is pierced at a depth below the horizon at which oil or gas has been discovered already.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2560, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977.

§ 91.013. PLUGGING AND SHUTTING IN WELLS BY OTHERS.
     (a) If the owner of a well described in Subsection (a) of Section 91.012 of this code neglects or refuses to have the well plugged or shut in for more than 20 days after written notice is given to him, the owner or operator of adjacent or neighboring land may enter the premises on which the well is located and have the well plugged if it is an abandoned well or shut in if it is not abandoned, in the manner provided by law.
     (b) Notice may be given to the owner of the well either by personal service on the owner or by posting the notice at a conspicuous place at or near the well.
     (c) The reasonable cost and expense incurred in plugging or shutting in the well shall be paid by the owner of the well and may be recovered as debts of like amount are recovered under the law.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2560, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977.

§ 91.014. PETITION TO RESTRAIN WASTE.
     (a) In addition to any other penalties, a district judge, in term time or vacation time, shall hear and determine any petition that is filed to restrain the waste of gas in violation of this subchapter and may issue mandatory or restraining orders that in his judgment are necessary.
     (b) The petition may be filed by any citizen of this state and does not have to allege further financial interest of the petitioner in the state's natural resources than that possessed in common with all citizens of the state.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2561, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977.

§ 91.015. PREVENTION OF WASTE.
     Operators, contractors, drillers, pipeline companies, and gas distributing companies that drill for or produce oil or gas or pipe oil or gas for any purpose shall use every possible precaution in accordance with the most approved methods to stop and prevent waste of oil, gas, or both oil and gas in drilling and producing operations, storage, piping, and distribution and shall not wastefully use oil or gas or allow oil or gas to leak or escape from natural reservoirs, wells, tanks, containers, or pipes.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2561, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977.

§ 91.016. CONFINING GAS TO ORIGINAL STRATUM.
     (a) If gas located in a gas-bearing stratum known to contain gas in paying quantities is encountered in a well drilled for oil or gas in this state, the gas shall be confined to its original stratum until it can be produced and used without waste.
     (b) Gas-bearing strata shall be adequately protected from infiltrating water.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2561, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977.

§ 91.017. USING GAS IN THE OPEN AIR.
     (a) Any person who uses gas in lights in the open air or in or around derricks shall turn off the gas not later than 8 a. m. of each day the lights are burning or are used and shall not turn the lights on or relight them between 8 a. m. and 5 p. m.
     (b) The person consuming the gas and using the burners in the open air shall enclose them in glass globes or lamps.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2561, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977.

§ 91.018. ILLUMINATION.
     No person, copartnership, or corporation may use gas for illuminating purposes in flambeau lights. The use of "jumbo" burners or other burners consuming no more gas than the "jumbo" burners is not prohibited.

Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 2561, ch. 871, art. I, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1977.